Bio156 final exam 51288 | Biology homework help

Category: Biology

Question

BIO156
Introductory Biology for Allied Health

Final Exam – Part 1

1 of 45

Mendel’s law of independent assortment states that __________.

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chromosomes sort independently of each other during mitosis and meiosis

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genes sort independently of each other in animals, but not in plants

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independent sorting of genes produces polyploid plants under some circumstances

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each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during gamete formation

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None of the choices are correct

Question

2 of 45

Individual features of all organisms are the result of __________.

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genetics

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the environment

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genetics and cytoplasmic determinants

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the environment and individual needs

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genetics and the environment

Question

3 of 45

How many sex chromosomes are in a human gamete?

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one

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two

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three

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four

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five

Question

4 of 45

Any gene located on a sex chromosome __________.

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is called a recessive gene

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is called a sex-linked gene

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is called a dominant allele

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will exhibit pleiotropy

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will exhibit codominance

Question

5 of 45

Why are sex-linked conditions more common in men than in women?

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Men acquire two copies of the defective gene during fertilization.

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Men need to inherit only one copy of the recessive allele for the condition to be fully expressed.

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Women simply do not develop the disease regardless of their genetic composition.

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The sex chromosomes are more active in men than in women.

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None of the choices are correct.

Question

6 of 45

A colorblind woman mates with a man who is not colorblind. All of the sons and none of the daughters are colorblind. What is the best explanation of this result?

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The gene for color vision is incompletely dominant to the gene for sex determination.

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The gene for color vision is completely dominant to the gene for sex determination.

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The gene for color vision is codominant with the gene for sex determination.

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The gene for color vision is linked to the X chromosome.

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The gene for color vision is linked to the Y chromosome.

Question

7 of 45

Karyotyping __________.

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shows chromosomes as they appear in metaphase of meiosis II

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can reveal alterations in chromosome number

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examines points of crossing over

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reveals the results of independent orientation of chromosomes during meiosis I

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reveals the presence of cancerous genes

Question

8 of 45

If a chromosome fragment breaks off and is lost from the original chromosome, the resulting chromosomal abnormality is called an) __________.

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deletion

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inversion

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translocation

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nondisjunction

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reciprocal translocation

Question

9 of 45

If short hair L) is dominant to long hair l), animals LL and Ll have the same __________.

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genotypes

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phenotypes

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alleles

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genes

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chromatids

Question

10 of 45

One of Mendel’s defining ideas was the theory of segregation. This idea __________.

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deals with the alleles governing two different traits

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applies only to linked genes

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applies only to sex-linked genes

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explains the behavior of a pair of alleles during meiosis

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applies to the partitioning of proteins

Question

11 of 45

If short hair L) is dominant to long hair l), then what fraction of the offspring produced by a cross of Ll x ll will be homozygous dominant?

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1/2

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1/4

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1/3

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1/8

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None

Question

12 of 45

If a child belonged to blood Type O, he or she could NOT have been produced by which set of parents?

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Type A mother and Type B father

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Type A mother and Type O father

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Type AB mother and Type O father

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Type O mother and Type O father

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Type B mother and Type O father

Question

13 of 45

Amniocentesis involves sampling __________.

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the fetus directly

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the fetal cells floating in the amniotic fluid

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sperm

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blood cells

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urine

Question

14 of 45

Which of the following genotypes is said to be homozygous?

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AaBB

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aaBB

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aaBb

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aABB

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Aabb

Question

15 of 45

Which of the following is NOT a true statement about genes?

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Genes are located on chromosomes.

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Genes are inherited independently of the chromosomes.

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Genes are arranged in linear sequence on chromosomes.

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A gene is a discrete sequence of DNA on a chromosome.

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Genes code for proteins.

Question

16 of 45

A karyotype __________.

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compares one set of chromosomes to another

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is a visual display of chromosomes arranged according to size

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is a photograph of cells undergoing mitosis during anaphase

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of a normal human cell shows 48 chromosomes

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is a representation of a cell in apoptosis

Question

17 of 45

A woman heterozygous for colorblindness an X-linked recessive allele marries a man with normal color vision. What is the probability that their first child will be colorblind?

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25 percent

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50 percent

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75 percent

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100 percent

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0 percent

Question

18 of 45

What could the children of a colorblind woman and a man with normal vision be?

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All will be colorblind.

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None will be colorblind.

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Daughters will be color-blind and sons will be of normal vision.

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Sons will be colorblind and daughters will be of normal vision.

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Half of the sons will be colorblind and all daughters will be colorblind.

Question

19 of 45

DNA replication __________.

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occurs by the addition of nucleotides to the end of the DNA molecule

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results in the formation of four new DNA strands

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produces two daughter DNA molecules that are complementary to each other

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uses each strand of a DNA molecule as a template for the creation of a new strand

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begins when two DNA molecules join together to exchange segments

Question

20 of 45

If one strand of DNA is CGGTAC, the corresponding strand would be __________.

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GCCTAG

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CGGTAC

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GCCAUC

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TAACGT

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GCCATG

Question

21 of 45

Which one of the following sequences best describes the flow of information when a gene directs the synthesis of a cellular component?

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RNA ? DNA ? RNA ? protein

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DNA ? RNA ? protein

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protein ? RNA ? DNA

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DNA ? amino acid ? RNA ? protein

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DNA ? tRNA ? mRNA ? protein

Question

22 of 45

Which one of the following best describes the sequence of events of translation?

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codon recognition ? translocation ? peptide bond formation ? termination

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peptide bond formation ? codon recognition ? translocation ? termination

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codon recognition ? peptide bond formation ? translocation ? termination

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codon recognition ? peptide bond formation ? termination ? translocation

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peptide bond formation ? translocation ? codon recognition ? termination

Question

23 of 45

In DNA, correct complementary base pairing would occur between __________.

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cytosine and uracil

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adenine and guanine

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adenine and uracil

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adenine and thymine

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cytosine and adenine

Question

24 of 45

Which of the following is NOT true of DNA polymerase?

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Adds new nucleotides to a developing strand.

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Is an enzyme.

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Creates the energy it needs by breaking adenine-guanine bonds.

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Proofreads DNA strands to see that they are correct.

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Is a protein.

Question

25 of 45

The movement of DNA fragments in a gel electrophoresis experiment is based on __________.

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the amount of carbon in the fragment

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the size and charge of the molecules

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the number of organic rings in the fragment

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their ease in going into a salt solution

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the sugars in the fragment

Question

26 of 45

Which of the following is the most precise explanation of how genes work?

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One gene controls one complete physical characteristic.

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Human metabolic defects may arise because of absent or defective enzymes.

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One gene controls one amino acid.

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One gene codes for the amino acid sequence of one polypeptide chain.

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Genes are made of RNA.

Question

27 of 45

The form of RNA that carries the code from the DNA to the site where the protein is assembled is called __________.

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messenger RNA

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nuclear RNA

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ribosomal RNA

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transfer RNA

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siRNA

Question

28 of 45

Which nucleotide base is found in RNA but not in DNA?

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thymine

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deoxyribose

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uracil

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guanine

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adenine

Question

29 of 45

Transcription __________.

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occurs on the surface of the ribosome

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is the final process in the assembly of a protein

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occurs during the synthesis of any type of RNA from a DNA template

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is catalyzed by DNA polymerase

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occurs in the mitochondria

Question

30 of 45

Which of the following could NOT be an RNA transcript?

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AUGCGU

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ATGCGT

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UACGCA

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UAGCGU

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GGCUAU

Question

31 of 45

Which of the following kinds of RNA is directly responsible for carrying specific amino acids to the ribosomes in protein synthesis?

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tRNA

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hnRNA

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rRNA

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mRNA

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snRNA

Question

32 of 45

What kind of virus is HIV, the AIDS virus)?

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a herpes virus

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a paramyxovirus

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a retrovirus

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a complex virus

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a provirus

Question

33 of 45

HIV delivers its greatest damage to __________.

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the adrenal glands

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pancreatic cells

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nervous tissue

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gametes

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white blood cells

Question

34 of 45

HIV is responsible for _____.

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PKU

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TB

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STD

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CPR

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AIDS

Question

35 of 45

Restriction enzymes __________.

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edit proteins

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cut DNA at specific sites

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stop transcription

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bind together strands of DNA

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bind RNA fragments together

Question

36 of 45

Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules on the basis of their __________.

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nucleotide sequence

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solubility in water

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ability to bind to mRNA

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solubility in the gel

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size

Question

37 of 45

Which of the following areas of research will benefit from the human genome project?

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understanding human evolution

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understanding human embryonic development

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improving the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of heart disease, cancer, and other common ailments

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All of the choices are correct.

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None of the choices are correct.

Question

38 of 45

Which of the following best defines the term transgenic animal?

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an animal that is the first of its kind to bear a particular allele

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an animal in which a genetic defect has been corrected using recombinant DNA therapy

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an animal containing a gene from a third “parent,” which may even be another species

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an animal containing genes from both its parents

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an animal containing genes from three or more species

Question

39 of 45

Genetic variation within a population is developed and maintained because of __________.

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random mutations

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recombination because of sexual reproduction

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crossing over

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All of the above

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None of these are valid ways of creating variation

Question

40 of 45

The prime goal of current work in genetic engineering is to __________.

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eliminate antibiotic resistance in bacteria

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isolate disease-causing plasmids in bacteria

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modify cells to correct a defect or produce a functional product

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transfer genes from viruses to other cells

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study only cancer and bring about a cure

Question

41 of 45

Viruses that infect bacteria are ______.

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retroviruses

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enveloped viruses

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emerging viruses

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proviruses

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bacteriophages

Question

42 of 45

Which of these can act as a vector to introduce new genes into a cell?

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humulin

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GM

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PCR

[removed]

clones

[removed]

plasmids

Question

43 of 45

Which of the following is a major category of animal tissue?

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epithelial

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plasma

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bone

[removed]

cardiac

[removed]

neurons

Question

44 of 45

Maintaining the volume and composition of body fluids is the direct responsibility of which of the following systems?

[removed]

integumentary

[removed]

immune

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digestive

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urinary

[removed]

respiratory

Question

45 of 45

Which of the following organs is NOT in the abdominal cavity?

[removed]

stomach

[removed]

liver

[removed]

intestine

[removed]

appendix

[removed]

heart

 

 

Part2

1 of 45

The basic structural and functional part of the kidney is the __________.

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Bowman’s capsule

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nephron

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glomerulus

[removed]

urinary bladder

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ascending aorta

Question

2 of 45

Which one of the following types of tissue stores fat in the body?

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blood

[removed]

cartilage

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bone

[removed]

adipose

[removed]

fibrous connective tissue

Question

3 of 45

Which of the following is true of a typical skeletal muscle?

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Contraction is involuntary.

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It is found in the walls of organs such as the digestive tract.

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Its fibers do not have a striped appearance under the microscope.

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It can be enlarged by exercise.

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It is only found in heart tissue.

Question

4 of 45

Which type of tissue forms a communication and coordination system within the body?

[removed]

nervous

[removed]

blood

[removed]

epithelial

[removed]

connective

[removed]

muscle

Question

5 of 45

Homeostasis __________.

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is the maintenance of a constant internal state

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only comes into play when you are ill

[removed]

is a pathological condition

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is the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment

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is the way the internal environment influences the external environment

Question

6 of 45

What are the four fundamental types of body tissues?

[removed]

connective, cardiac, nervous, and adipose tissue.

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connective, epithelial, nervous, and muscle tissue.

[removed]

epithelial, hormonal, cellular, and bone tissue.

[removed]

epithelial, glandular, muscle, and nervous tissue.

[removed]

connective, neurons, muscle, and cartilage tissue.

Question

7 of 45

What is the main function of connective tissue?

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support

[removed]

movement

[removed]

protection

[removed]

response to stimuli

[removed]

covering

Question

8 of 45

Which of the following is NOT a function of the skin?

[removed]

protection from invasion by bacteria

[removed]

temperature regulation

[removed]

sensing the world around us

[removed]

protection from physical injury

[removed]

production of hormones promoting tanning

Question

9 of 45

What are the two main divisions of the skeletal system?

[removed]

cranial and axial

[removed]

vertebral and appendicular

[removed]

appendicular and axial

[removed]

axial and articular

[removed]

articular and cranial

Question

10 of 45

Which of the following carry incoming messages toward the cell body of a neuron?

[removed]

axons

[removed]

dendrites

[removed]

actin filaments

[removed]

myosin filaments

[removed]

supporting cells

Question

11 of 45

The four stages of food processing are, in order:

[removed]

ingestion, absorption, elimination, digestion

[removed]

ingestion, elimination, digestion, absorption

[removed]

ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination

[removed]

digestion, absorption, ingestion, elimination

[removed]

elimination, absorption, digestion, ingestion

Question

12 of 45

Once an action potential is triggered, the first major chemical change is __________.

[removed]

a reversal of the membrane polarity, with the interior of the cell becoming positive

[removed]

a reversal of the membrane polarity, with the interior of the cell becoming negative

[removed]

an increase in the negative charge inside the neuron

[removed]

an increase in the positive charge inside the neuron

[removed]

propagation of an impulse

Question

13 of 45

The function of the sphincter at the downstream end of the stomach is to __________.

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retain acid chime in the stomach until pepsin digestion is complete

[removed]

release bile into the duodenum when chime is present

[removed]

release pancreatic secretions into the duodenum when chime is present

[removed]

release bile and pancreatic secretions into the duodenum when chime is present

[removed]

release acid chime into the duodenum in periodic squirts

Question

14 of 45

Muscles are connected to bones by ______.

[removed]

thick filaments

[removed]

ligaments

[removed]

tendons

[removed]

other muscles

[removed]

myofibrils

Question

15 of 45

A thick filament consists of ______.

[removed]

actin

[removed]

actin and regulatory proteins

[removed]

myosin

[removed]

myosin and regulatory filaments

[removed]

actin and myosin

Question

16 of 45

When the wall of the stomach fails to protect itself from erosion by gastric juice, the result is __________.

[removed]

heartburn

[removed]

reverse peristalsis

[removed]

a duodenal ulcer

[removed]

nausea

[removed]

a gastric ulcer

Question

17 of 45

Most nutrient absorption occurs in which part of the digestive system?

[removed]

stomach

[removed]

liver

[removed]

pancreas

[removed]

small intestine

[removed]

large intestine

Question

18 of 45

Which of the following is a junction between two neurons?

[removed]

Schwann cell

[removed]

Chemical synapse

[removed]

Node of Ranvier

[removed]

Sodium gate

[removed]

Polarity space

Question

19 of 45

Which of the following organs of the digestive system is different from the other four because it does NOT produce any secretions that aid in the digestive process?

[removed]

stomach

[removed]

liver

[removed]

esophagus

[removed]

pancreas

[removed]

Important secretions are released by all of the above organs.

Question

20 of 45

Outnumbering neurons by up to 50 to 1, which cells protect, insulate, and reinforce neurons?

[removed]

sensory cells

[removed]

motor cells

[removed]

axon cells

[removed]

satellite cells

[removed]

supporting cells

Question

21 of 45

All veins carry __________.

[removed]

blood toward the heart

[removed]

interstitial fluid

[removed]

blood away from the heart

[removed]

oxygen-rich blood

[removed]

oxygen-poor blood

Question

22 of 45

Trace the path of a red blood cell in a circuit that takes it from the capillary bed of the right kidney to the capillary bed of the left kidney.

[removed]

capillary bed of right kidney….venules….veins….right atrium….right ventricle….pulmonary arteries….capillaries of lungs….pulmonary veins….left atrium….left ventricle….aorta….arteries….arterioles…. capillary bed of left kidney

[removed]

capillary bed of right kidney….venules….veins….right atrium….right ventricle…. pulmonary veins….capillaries of lungs….pulmonary arteries….left atrium….left ventricle…..aorta….arteries….arterioles….capillary bed of left kidney

[removed]

capillary bed of right kidney….venules….v eins…..left atrium….left ventricle…. pulmonary arteries….capillaries of lungs….pulmonary veins….right atrium…. right ventricle….aorta….arteries…..arterioles….capillary bed of left kidney

[removed]

capillary bed of right kidney….arterioles….arteries….aorta….right atrium….right ventricle….pulmonary arteries….capillaries of lungs….pulmonary veins….left atrium ….left ventricle….veins….venules….capillary bed of left kidney

[removed]

capillary bed of right kidney….venules….veins….left atrium….left ventricle…. pulmonary veins….capillaries of lungs….pulmonary arteries….right atrium…. right ventricle….aorta….arteries….arterioles….capillary bed of left kidney

Question

23 of 45

When you examine fluid that you have drawn from a blood vessel, you find that it is relatively high in carbon dioxide and waste products. Assuming that the fluid comes from a healthy individual, you conclude that the blood vessel from which you have drawn the blood could have been __________.

[removed]

a venule

[removed]

an artery

[removed]

an arteriole

[removed]

the aorta

[removed]

either an artery or an arteriole

Question

24 of 45

White blood cells play a particularly important role in __________.

[removed]

carrying oxygen

[removed]

carrying carbon dioxide

[removed]

blood clotting

[removed]

hemoglobin transport

[removed]

fighting infections

Question

25 of 45

Temperature regulation, hormone distribution, and exchanging nutrients and wastes with the interstitial fluid are all functions of the _____ system.

[removed]

respiratory

[removed]

digestive

[removed]

immune

[removed]

circulatory

[removed]

nervous

Question

26 of 45

Animals need oxygen because it __________.

[removed]

plays a role in obtaining energy from food

[removed]

counterbalances the CO2 in the atmosphere

[removed]

helps animals synthesize proteins

[removed]

is necessary to make CO2

[removed]

is needed to deliver hemoglobin to all the cells in the body

Question

27 of 45

In the human respiratory system, gas exchange occurs across the cells of the _____.

[removed]

diaphragm

[removed]

trachea

[removed]

bronchi

[removed]

pharynx

[removed]

alveoli

Question

28 of 45

When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to breathe again?

[removed]

rising oxygen level

[removed]

rising carbon dioxide level

[removed]

falling oxygen level

[removed]

falling carbon dioxide level

[removed]

both rising carbon dioxide level and falling oxygen levels

Question

29 of 45

Which of the following is one of the body’s first lines of defense against infection?

[removed]

a group of nonspecific antibodies

[removed]

several nonspecific amino acid toxins

[removed]

several nonspecific obstacles such as skin and mucous membranes

[removed]

increased production of certain hormones and changes in the blood circulation

[removed]

an increasing in the breathing rate

Question

30 of 45

When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following chemical alarm signals?

[removed]

interferon

[removed]

complement

[removed]

histamine

[removed]

pyrogens

[removed]

anti-interferon

Question

31 of 45

Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?

[removed]

The rapid multiplication of the invading microorganisms results in extra heat production.

[removed]

The inflammatory and immune responses result in extra heat production.

[removed]

The invading microorganisms trick the brain’s temperature control center into raising the temperature so they can grow better.

[removed]

The brain’s temperature control center responds to inflammation by creating a hot environment unfavorable to microorganisms.

[removed]

Fevers insure that you will stay in bed longer so that your body can recover from the illness.

Question

32 of 45

The appendix, bone marrow, thymus, and spleen are all parts of the __________ system.

[removed]

immune

[removed]

circulatory

[removed]

excretory

[removed]

renal

[removed]

digestive

Question

33 of 45

Antibodies __________.

[removed]

are shaped like the letter B

[removed]

are generalists in that any antibody can bind to any antigen

[removed]

consist of three polypeptide chains

[removed]

assist in destroying particular antigens

[removed]

All of the above are true

Question

34 of 45

Hormones regulate __________.

[removed]

growth

[removed]

reproduction

[removed]

water balance

[removed]

metabolism

[removed]

all of the above

Question

35 of 45

Which of the following best describes the relationship of insulin to glucagon?

[removed]

They work together to prepare the body to deal with stress.

[removed]

Insulin stimulates the pancreas to secrete glucagon.

[removed]

High levels of insulin inhibit pancreatic secretion of glucagon.

[removed]

They are antagonistic hormones.

[removed]

Insulin is a steroid hormone; glucagon is a protein hormone.

Question

36 of 45

What moves the human egg through the oviduct?

[removed]

the beating of the egg’s cilia

[removed]

the beating of the egg’s flagella

[removed]

rhythmic contractions of the oviduct

[removed]

rhythmic contractions of the uterus

[removed]

the beating of cilia in the oviduct

Question

37 of 45

In a human male reproductive system:

[removed]

a circumcision removes a portion of the scrotum.

[removed]

the vas deferens conducts sperm between the testis and epididymis.

[removed]

the sperm travel through the urethra during ejaculation.

[removed]

sperm mature in the prostate gland.

[removed]

sperm are produced in the bladder and released through the scrotum.

Question

38 of 45

A vaccine contains __________.

[removed]

a killed pathogen

[removed]

weakened pathogen

[removed]

non-infective fragments of a pathogen

[removed]

all of the above may be used in a vaccine

[removed]

Vaccines only contain genetically-modified virus particles

Question

39 of 45

Oxygen moves from the alveoli to the bloodstream __________.

[removed]

because the concentration of oxygen is greater in alveoli than in the blood

[removed]

mainly due to the activity of carbonic anhydrase in the red blood cells

[removed]

because there is more oxygen in the blood than in the bloodstream

[removed]

through active transport through the cell membrane

[removed]

to escape from the body as a waste product

Question

40 of 45

Which of the following is NOT a true statement about the human female?

[removed]

She produces all the eggs that she ever will before she is born.

[removed]

She will normally produce more gametes than her male counterpart.

[removed]

It is possible that more than one egg will be released at ovulation.

[removed]

The process of meiosis may take 30 to 50 years to complete.

[removed]

The ovary is the primary reproductive organ.

Question

41 of 45

Most of the oxygen in the blood is transported by __________.

[removed]

platelets

[removed]

plasma

[removed]

platelets

[removed]

hemoglobin

[removed]

serotonin

Question

42 of 45

The correct term to describe the production of the human sperm is __________.

[removed]

spermogenerator

[removed]

oogenesis

[removed]

spermatogenesis

[removed]

sperm-production

[removed]

gametogeneric

Question

43 of 45

In vitro fertilization __________.

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can be used to select the sex of an embryo

[removed]

permits the screening of embryos for genetic defects

[removed]

can use eggs that have been frozen

[removed]

all of the above

[removed]

none of the above

Question

44 of 45

A vasectomy __________.

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prevents the production of sperm in the testes

[removed]

prevents the production of semen

[removed]

prevents the movement of sperm into the urethra

[removed]

prevents a man from having an erection

[removed]

is an effective method to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases

Question

45 of 45

Why are human testes located in an external sac rather than in the abdominal cavity?

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to shorten the distance that semen must travel during ejaculation

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to shorten the distance that sperm must swim during insemination

[removed]

so the testes can be kept at a constant temperature

[removed]

so the testes can be kept cooler than the body’s interior

[removed]

so the testes can enlarge at sexual maturity

 

 

Part3

 

 

What are the four main types of tissue? What are the characteristics of each type and how do they function in the body? Give an example of where you would find each type in the body.

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