Need 1 peer responses to be answered in 4 hours of 175 words each.

Category: Psychology

Instructions:

 -Each response to another must be at least 175 words in length.

While opinions and reactions are personal and subjective in nature, they need references and citations for support. This approach reflects knowledge acquisition as well as application and synthesis of content. In other words, always support your work with resources. This is also applies to article reviews and/or reflection exercises…you still must have at least two references….one of which will always be your textbook.  

(Cohen, R. J., & Swerdlik, M. E. (2018). Psychological testing and assessment: An introduction

     to tests and measurement (9th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.)

(Peer Post)

The Scales We Use and the Comparisons We Make

Discuss the impact of each scale of measurement on the ability or inability to be utilized on a test being standardized as a norm-referenced or criterion-referenced assessment. For the purpose of this discussion, you may cluster the ordinal and interval scale together. Subsequently, your post will include the following four elements:

  • Ordinal or interval scale of measurement and norm-referenced test.
  • Ordinal or interval scale of measurement and criterion-referenced test.
  • Ratio scale of measurement and norm-referenced test.
  • Ratio scale of measurement and criterion-referenced test.

Provide at least one example that is not in your Psychological Testing and Assessment text for each combination above and describe how the referencing data would be collected. 

            Ordinal or interval scale of measurement and a norm-referenced assessment combined can have a worthwhile and substantial effect.  An ordinal scale is a method of measurement where each person being measured is done so according to a ranking system.  Where a person falls in the order of rank does not imply that one rank is far greater than or less than another rank. There is no zero point which refers to the notion that everyone has some capability and therefore there is no zero rating (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2018).  This can influence norm-referenced assessments, an example could be in the NFL draft.  An owner of an NFL team may be looking for a field goal kicker, so they look at the top three rated field goal kickers.  The number one ranked kicker coming out of college, the second-ranked kicker, and the third-ranked kicker.  If you are the coach or owner of an NFL team you may come to the conclusion that the third-ranked kicker will need more practice and coaching because he is ranked lower than the two players above him in the ranking.  We know the first ranked kicker had more successful field goal attempts, but we do not know by how many successful field goals separate each player.

Ordinal or interval scale of measurement and criterion-referenced assessment has an influence because when you implement criterion the person must sustain or surpass a certain level of criterion (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2018).  For me to become a registered behavior technician I must attain a score that meets or rises above the set criterion or score that the BACB mandates to pass their exam and become certified.  The BACB could keep track and put out a list of who became certified but according to rank.  Highest score as number one and so on.  That could affect a top-notch company deciding who they want to hire according to the number a person was ranked.  The company would be looking at an individual’s proficiencies that need to meet a certain level which is then measured to be pertinent to the subject matter that is being assessed throughout the test.   

A ratio scale of measurement and a norm-referenced assessment could use the total amount of time I took answering each question on the registered behavior technician test.  They could then take the amount of time I took to answer each question and compare it to the amount of time other individuals who took the same exam took in answering their questions.  For instance, a company may look at the fact that I got 90 out of 100 questions correct and took less time than another person who got 88 out of the 100 questions correct but took more time.  One aspect to contemplate if you are the head of the company is to look at any extraneous or confounding variables that may have contributed to the reason one person scored the 88, such as extreme stressors they were experiencing the day of the test (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2018).

The ratio scale of measurement and a criterion-referenced assessment is one in which an individual’s skill level is measured and evaluated to put them in an exact category.  There may be more than one category being measured as well.  (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2018).  For instance, to be accepted for an exclusive diamond titanium credit card an individual will need to meet or exceed high criteria in several categories.  When applying to such a credit card the individual must prove their worthiness by having an excellent credit score, a certain credit to debt ratio, be in a certain income bracket, and so on.  A ratio scale contains the true zero point in which there is equal intervals between all the numbers so that mathematical equations can be determined to see if you fit in the proper category to earn yourself that exclusive credit card.

As you can see there is a tiered difference between the types of measurement I have discussed.  Nominal measures provide data on whether two things are alike or unalike.  Ordinal measures add data regarding more or less of a quantity.  Interval measures add data concerning the distance between items, people, and/or objects.  While the ratio scale measures add the absolute zero standard (Stevens, 1946).

Provide a statement that evaluates which scale of measurement appears to be the most useful for examining attributes in psychology. Explain. 

            Although there is much controversy on which scale of measurement seems to be the most suitable for assessing characteristics and traits in psychology, I believe the interval scales would be the most useful.  When using interval scales, you would find the mean within an array of measures to determine your evaluation conclusions.  In psychology even the use of meticulous standardized measures such as the Likerts will classify the data as interval if the scale being utilized has seven or more points.  Using interval scales seems to be the happy medium in which you can average the results to better assess a larger group of people, conditions, behaviors, and/or all other classifications needing to be assessed (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2018).

Evaluate which method of referencing (norm or criterion) appears to be the most useful for examining attributes in psychology. Explain your decision based on the area of focus regarding the test results. For example, identify if it is preferable to focus on how one individual performs relative to others who took the same test, or if it is preferable to only focus on what the individual can or cannot do. 

            When assessing which method of referencing between criterion or norm seems to be the most valuable when analyzing attributes in psychology, I would tend towards criterion.  I think it is more effective to delve into what one individual is capable of or not capable of accomplishing.  That way you are better suited to help that individual by focusing on decreasing undesirable behaviors that they exhibit and increasing their skill acquisition based on their unique strengths and weaknesses.  Each of us is different and understanding what each individual could benefit from would help to focus on how to better serve that individual from a psychological perspective.  

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