According to research, goal difficulty was __________ related to performance.
“SMART” goals stands for:
A. specific, measurable, attainable, results-oriented, and time bound.
B. specific, merit-based, acceptable, revealed, and tested.
C. systematic, measurable, acceptable, real, and two-dimensional.
D. synergistic, moderated, attainable, research-based, and time-tested.
Generally, people tend to perceive and recall __________ feedback more accurately than they do __________ feedback.
A. positive; negative
B. negative; positive
C. negative; downward
D. downward; upward
Which of the following was voted most effective as an incentive pay plan?
A. Individual incentives
B. Group incentives
C. Skill- or knowledge-based pay
D. Profit sharing
Experts estimate that what percentage of communication is nonverbal?
A. 10-20 percent
B. 20-40 percent
C. 40-65 percent
D. 65-90 percent
Which of the following research findings on nonverbal behavior is true?
A. Men do more touching during conversation than women do.
B. A smile conveys the same emotion in different countries.
C. Asians are taught to avoid eye contact with superiors and parents in order to show obedience and subservience.
D. Experts estimate that about 98% of every conversation is interpreted through body language.
A person’s characteristic speaking pattern refers to their __________ listening style.
According to Vroom, expectancy refers to which of the following linkages?
A. Performance ® Effort
B. Outcome ® Performance
C. Performance ® Outcome
D. Effort ® Performance
A management system that incorporates participation in decision making, goal setting, and objective feedback is:
A. organization justice.
B. a distributive system.
C. an expectancy system.
According to Locke’s model, goal setting has all of the following motivational mechanisms EXCEPT:
A. goals direct attention.
B. goals regulate effort.
C. goals increase persistence.
D. goals create equity.
Which of the following models propose that satisfaction is a result of met expectations?
A. Need fulfillment models
B. Discrepancies models
C. Value attainment models
D. Equity model
Equity theory is based on __________ theory.
A. goal setting
B. need satisfaction
C. cognitive dissonance
__________ justice is defined as the perceived fairness of the process and procedures used to make allocation decisions.
A natural tendency for evaluating or judging a sender’s message is a __________ barrier.
__________ competence is a performance-based index of an individual’s abilities to effectively use communication behaviors in a given context.
Research studies indicate that __________ is more effective than __________ in both work-related and consumer contexts.
A. aggressiveness; assertiveness
B. nonassertiveness; aggressiveness
C. assertiveness; aggressiveness
D. nonassertiveness; assertiveness